step_word_embeddings creates a specification of a recipe step that will convert a tokenlist into word-embedding dimensions by aggregating the vectors of each token from a pre-trained embedding.

step_word_embeddings(
  recipe,
  ...,
  role = "predictor",
  trained = FALSE,
  columns = NULL,
  embeddings,
  aggregation = c("sum", "mean", "min", "max"),
  aggregation_default = 0,
  prefix = "w_embed",
  skip = FALSE,
  id = rand_id("word_embeddings")
)

# S3 method for step_word_embeddings
tidy(x, ...)

Arguments

recipe

A recipe object. The step will be added to the sequence of operations for this recipe.

...

One or more selector functions to choose variables. For step_word_embeddings, this indicates the variables to be encoded into a tokenlist. See recipes::selections() for more details. For the tidy method, these are not currently used.

role

For model terms created by this step, what analysis role should they be assigned?. By default, the function assumes that the new columns created by the original variables will be used as predictors in a model.

trained

A logical to indicate if the recipe has been baked.

columns

A list of tibble results that define the encoding. This is NULL until the step is trained by recipes::prep.recipe().

embeddings

A tibble of pre-trained word embeddings, such as those returned by the embedding_glove function function from the textdata package The first column should contain tokens, and additional columns should contain embeddings vectors.

aggregation

A character giving the name of the aggregation function to use. Must be one of "sum", "mean", "min", and "max". Defaults to "sum".

aggregation_default

A numeric denoting the default value for case with no words are matched in embedding. Defaults to 0.

prefix

A character string that will be the prefix to the resulting new variables. See notes below.

skip

A logical. Should the step be skipped when the recipe is baked by recipes::bake.recipe()? While all operations are baked when recipes::prep.recipe() is run, some operations may not be able to be conducted on new data (e.g. processing the outcome variable(s)). Care should be taken when using skip = TRUE as it may affect the computations for subsequent operations.

id

A character string that is unique to this step to identify it.

x

A step_word_embeddings object.

Value

An updated version of recipe with the new step added to the sequence of existing steps (if any).

Details

Word embeddings map words (or other tokens) into a high-dimensional feature space. This function maps pre-trained word embeddings onto the tokens in your data.

The argument embeddings provides the pre-trained vectors. Each dimension present in this tibble becomes a new feature column, with each column aggregated across each row of your text using the function supplied in the aggregation argument.

The new components will have names that begin with prefix, then the name of the aggregation function, then the name of the variable from the embeddings tibble (usually something like "d7"). For example, using the default "word_embeddings" prefix, the "sum" aggregation, and the GloVe embeddings from the textdata package (where the column names are d1, d2, etc), new columns would be word_embeddings_sum_d1, word_embeddings_sum_d2, etc.

See also

step_tokenize() to turn character into tokenlist.

Other tokenlist to numeric steps: step_texthash(), step_tfidf(), step_tf()

Examples

library(recipes) embeddings <- tibble( tokens = c("the", "cat", "ran"), d1 = c(1, 0, 0), d2 = c(0, 1, 0), d3 = c(0, 0, 1) ) sample_data <- tibble( text = c( "The.", "The cat.", "The cat ran." ), text_label = c("fragment", "fragment", "sentence") ) rec <- recipe(text_label ~ ., data = sample_data) %>% step_tokenize(text) %>% step_word_embeddings(text, embeddings = embeddings) obj <- rec %>% prep() bake(obj, sample_data)
#> # A tibble: 3 x 4 #> text_label w_embed_sum_d1 w_embed_sum_d2 w_embed_sum_d3 #> <fct> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> #> 1 fragment 1 0 0 #> 2 fragment 1 1 0 #> 3 sentence 1 1 1
tidy(rec, number = 2)
#> # A tibble: 1 x 4 #> terms embeddings_rows aggregation id #> <chr> <int> <chr> <chr> #> 1 text 3 sum word_embeddings_LxmtT
tidy(obj, number = 2)
#> # A tibble: 1 x 4 #> terms embeddings_rows aggregation id #> <quos> <int> <chr> <chr> #> 1 text 3 sum word_embeddings_LxmtT